The images you'll see as you scroll down to the current text are all part of the story telling in my novel, Realms of Gold:Ritual to Romance.


Bianca Caldwell, pen name, Bianca Fiore, is a writer for an art magazine. In each of her monthly stories she describes an object used in ancient ritual.



Museum at Chatillon Features Realms of Gold!



                                Amis du Musée du Pays Châtillonnais
                                                                                                 Trésor de Vix
No oo1  Lettre aux Amis du Musée  Automne 2014
Fédération Française des Sociétés

d’Amis de Musée (FFSAM)

Notre association est adhérente à la FFSAM à l’instar de quelque 290 autres sociétés d’amis de Musée. En plus de son rôle d’interlocuteur des Pouvoirs Publics, la fédération est un organe de promotion des Sociétés d’Amis et par voie de conséquence des musées, une source de contacts et une occasion d’échanges d’expériences. C’est ainsi qu’un article sur l’AMPC est paru dans le dernier numéro de la revue de la FSAMM. Par ailleurs nous sommes entrain d’établir des relations avec nos collègues de Bourgogne en vue de donner un second souffle au groupement régional (Bourgogne) des sociétés d’amis de musée.
Affaire à suivre.


























Un roman autour de la Dame de Vix :

Les royaumes dorés par Terry Stanfill.

La Dame de Vix a inspiré un roman original écrit par une Américaine résidant en Californie, Terry Stanfill.  A l’occasion d’une visite touristique de la région, cette écrivaine eut un véritable coup de cœur pour la Dame de Vix et tout ce qui l’entoure. L’ouvrage
"Les royaumes dorés" en Anglais "Realms of Gold " imagine les circonstances dans lesquelles le vase de Vix est arrivé dans notre Châtillonnais. Naturellement, c’est une fiction : elle met en scènes divers évènements et protagonistes réels ou imaginaires. Les versions françaises et anglaises sont en vente à la boutique du Musée (15€).  




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                                                Contacts : Président Robert Fries  Tél :03 80 93 14 42
                                                                      Secrétariat : 06 36 60 92 78  courriel ampc.tresordevix@gmail.com
Permanence les jeudis de 9h. à 12h. (sur rendez-vous)





The Lost Fabergé Eggs

Peter the Great Egg, 1903. Presented by Nicholas II to Czarina Alexandra Fyodorovna. Red, green, and yellow gold, platinum, diamonds, rubies, sapphire, ivory, bronze, rock crystal. Kept in Virginia Museum of Fine Arts, Richmond (Lillian Thomas Pratt Collection).

In 1885 Tsar Alexander III (House of Romanov) commissioned the production of the gold and enamel 'Hen Egg' for his wife the Empress Maria which she adored. Fabergé was made ‘Goldsmith by Special Appointment to the Imperial Crown’ and over the next 33 years 52 eggs were made for the Russian Royal Family as well as a further 15 for other private buyers.

First Imperial (Hen) Egg, 1885.

Presented by Alexander III to Czarina Maria Fyodorovna. Gold, rubies & diamonds. Kept in Svyaz' Vremyon Fund - Viktor Vekselberg collection - Moscow. Inside the hen there was a ruby crown and inside the crown a pendant. However, the diamond crown and a ruby pendant were "lost" when the egg was sold by the Bolsheviks in the 1920s.

Egg from gold is covered in polished opaque white, simulating a shell, enamel; shutters keep on three bayonet locks. Inside – "yolk" of matte gold which, opening, Contains a figure of a gold chicken in a nest with a suede lining and the edges engraved on gold representing straw. The plumage is executed from alternating color gold, a head – from yellow, and a comb and ear rings – from red. All surfaces are carefully engraved, eyes are executed from rubies-cabochons. The case of a chicken opens by means of hidden at the tail-end of the hinge, on a paunch are engraved yellow gold of a pad. The chicken, in turn, contained other surprises (presumably imperial crown decorated with diamonds, And in it - a chain with two ruby coulombs), considered lost after sale of the egg by the Bolsheviks in 1920. ( Viktor Vekselberg collection, Moscow.)






The Lost Third Imperial Easter Egg by Carl Fabergé.

The Third Imperial Easter Egg is one of 50 delivered by Fabergé to Emperors Alexander III and Nicholas II from 1885 to 1916, and until its recent discovery was one of eight lost eggs. Only two others of these lost eggs are thought to have survived the revolution.



The egg was the third of 54 Fabergé eggs owned by the Russian royal family and had been lost since 1922. It is recorded that in 1922 this egg was transferred from the Kremlin Armoury, which had confiscated the eggs in 1917 when the Tsar was overthrown, to the special plenipotentiary of the Council of People's Commissars, Ivan Gavrilovich Chinariov. Beyond the written records, a 1902 photograph of the egg on exhibition in St. Petersburg also survived.

Lost Faberge egg discovered – The diamond mechanism opens the egg to reveal a Vacheron Constantin watch inside. The gold watch with diamond hands is hinged to stand upright.
 
Two Fabergé experts, Vincent and Anna Palmade, found the catalog from a 1964 auction by Parke Bernet (an auction house later acquired by Sotheby's) and seeing the photograph they were able to identify an egg that sold for $2,450 as the missing Fabergé egg. We will probably never know how it ended up leaving the USSR and making it to the US, but we imagine it must be a pretty interesting story.

Lost Faberge egg discovered – Wartski's display of the Third Imperial Easter Egg in London will be only the second time it has been shown in public, the first being in a 1902 exhibition of the Russian royal family's Faberge collection in St. Petersburg.


This egg hasn’t been seen since 1902, and it might not be seen for another 100 years because it was bought by a private collector. Given by Alexander III Emperor and Autocrat of all the Russias to Empress Marie Feodorovna for Easter 1887. 

The jeweled and ridged yellow gold Egg stands on its original tripod pedestal, which has chased lion paw feet and is encircled by colored gold garlands suspended from cabochon blue sapphires topped with rose diamond set bows.

It contains a surprise of a lady’s watch by Vacheron Constantin, with a white enamel dial and openwork diamond set gold hands. The watch has been taken from its case to be mounted in the Egg and is hinged, allowing it to stand upright. Made in the workshop of Fabergé’s Chief-Jeweller: August Holmström, St. Petersburg, 1886-1887.

In all likelihood, this is now the most expensive timepiece ever sold, surpassing the famous Rothschild egg sold in 2007 by Christie's for over $18 million. Of course, the most expensive watch (without extra components) ever sold was the Henry Graves Supercomplication made by Patek Philippe, which sold for $11 million in 1999.

The 1917 Russian Revolution toppled Tsar Nicholas II who was executed along with much of the royal family in July 1918. Fearing for his safety, Peter Carl Faberge abandoned Russia travelling first to Latvia then Germany and finally Switzerland where he died in Lausene in 1920.

The Fabergé eggs and many other treasures of the Royal family were confiscated and stored in the vaults of the Kremlin Armoury. Some were sold to raise funds for the new regime. Over time eight of the original 52 Imperial eggs have vanished and their whereabouts remain a mystery to this day. A full list of missing eggs is below. In 2007, just one egg, 'The Rothschild' was sold at Christies Auction House for $8.9 million.


The Missing Eggs:

(1886) The Hen Egg with Sapphire Pendant (1888) The Cherub with Chariot Egg (PPC-USA) (1889) The Nécessaire Egg (PPC-UK) (1896) The Egg with Alexander III Portraits (1897) The Mauve Egg (1902) Empire Nephrite Egg (Alexander III Medallion) (1903) The Royal Danish (Jubilee) Egg (1909) The Alexander III Commemorative Egg

The Hen Egg with Sapphire Pendant


Cherub with Chariot Egg behind Caucasus Egg

The 1888 Cherub with Chariot egg is behind the Caucasus egg on the far right of the bottom shelf. It is almost completely hidden by the Caucasus egg, which is why it has remained undetected for more than 100 years. The egg gradually reveals itself following long and patient scrutiny with a magnifying glass. One wheel of the Chariot appears just left of the Caucasus stand, the tip of the egg is just left of the tip of the Caucasus egg and the outline of the Cherub pulling the Chariot with his two hands can be seen just above and on the left of the wheel. There are also two reflections of the egg in the vitrine glasses - the outline of the chariot can be seen on the reflection in the vitrine to the right of the egg. There can be little doubt that this is indeed the Cherub with Chariot egg because its appearance is quite unique and matches perfectly the description in the account books of N. Petrov, assistant manager to the Cabinet of His Imperial Majesty - Cherub pulling a chariot containing an egg. (Fabergé, Proler and Skurlov, 100; Lowes and McCanless, 24-5)

Alexander III Portraits Egg

This Egg was long thought to be the 1892 gift for the Imperial Couple's 25th wedding anniversary, but later research proved that the 12 Monogram Egg was presented to Maria Feodorovna at Easter in 1895, in memory of Tsar Alexander III, who had died the previous November.

In November 2008 new research proved that this Egg had to be one and the same egg as the missing Alexander III Portraits Egg, and was presented to Maria Feodorovna as remembrance to Alexander III and the fact that the Imperial couple's married 30 years earlier, in 1866.

The 1896 12 Monogram Egg / Alexander III Portraits Egg was the first in what would become no less than four Imperial Eggs directly commemorating Alexander III, either through miniature paintings or through sculptures. The other three Eggs are the 1902 Empire Nephrite Egg (missing), the 1909 Alexander III Commemorative Egg (missing) and the 1910 Alexander III Equestrian Egg.

In 1949, Marjorie Merriweather Post acquired the 1896 Alexander III Portraits Egg. Today the egg is part of a large Fabergé collection at the Hillwood Museum in Washington (DC). The surprise in the Fabergé egg has been missing and no photographs - only an invoice - were known to scholars until now. The egg was previously identified as the 1895 Twelve Monogram Egg, until Annemiek Wintraecken published a revised Fabergé egg timeline in the Fabergé Research Newsletter, November 2008. Based on the Fabergé invoice the surprise included six portraits of Alexander III and ten sapphires. The egg and its surprise were presented for Easter 1896 by Emperor Nicholas II to his mother, the Dowager Empress Maria Feodorovna, who wrote to her son:

    "I can't find words to express to you, my dear Nicky, how touched and moved I was on receiving your ideal egg with the charming portraits of your dear, adored Papa. It is all such a beautiful idea, with our monograms above it all." (von Habsburg, Fabergé: Treasures of Imperial Russia, 2004, 66)

In our auction catalog research we found four photographs of the surprise - a folding miniature frame. Whereabouts of the frame is currently unknown, however, we hope the surprise may be alive and well in the care of an unsuspecting collector.



The 1897 Mauve Egg, also known as Mauve Egg with 3 miniatures, was probably made of gold and mauve enamel. The heart-surprise is made of rose-cut diamonds, strawberry red, green and white enamel, pearls and watercolor, probably on ivory.

Research in the Russian State Historical Archives in Moscow shows that the surprise in the Mauve Egg was heart-shaped and there is a strong suggestion that it may be the heart-shaped frame included in the Forbes Magazine Collection, (now Vekselberg Foundation). The frame is set with the date 1897 in rose-cut diamonds and opens as a three-leaf clover with each leave holding a photograph, Nicholas II, Alexandra Feodorovna and their baby daughter Grand Duchess Olga.

There is no mention of the Mauve Egg in either the 1917 or 1922 inventories of confiscated Imperial treasure. This suggests the Egg had been removed before 1917, perhaps by Maria Feodorovna herself.

The Nécessaire Egg
"A Fine Gold Egg, richly set with diamonds, cabochon rubies, emeralds, a large coloured diamond at top and a cabochon sapphire at point. The interior is designed as an Etui with thirteen gold and diamond set implements." This is the description of item 20 under the heading 'Lent Anonymously' from the catalogue of a loan exhibition of the works of Carl Fabergé held at Wartski, 138, Regent Street, London W1, November 8-25, 1949.

The story of this previously unidentified golden egg up until 1952 has now been pieced together by Kieran McCarthy of Wartski. His detective work was prompted by the opening up of the Russian archives in the 1990s, where a Fabergé invoice addressed to the Tsar for "Nécessaire Egg, Louis XV style, 1900 roubles, St. Petersburg 4th May 1889" was discovered in the Imperial ledgers. Two years later, an inventory of items in the Gatchina Palace recorded: "Egg decorated with stones, containing ladies toilet articles, 13 pieces." In 1917, items confiscated by the provisional government included a "gold nécessaire egg, decorated with precious stones", and, in 1922, "1 gold Nécessaire egg with diamonds, rubies, emeralds and 1 sapphire" was among the goods transferred to the Sovnarkom, the central agency in Moscow from where confiscated items were dispersed and sold off by the state.

Searching through Wartski's ledgers, Mr. McCarthy found an entry confirming that an object matching the description of the Nécessaire Egg was sold in 1952. The buyer was almost certainly British, and insisted on anonymity. Wartski observed absolute discretion and never recorded the name, and there is no record of it having being seen by anyone in the art world since.

in 2007 Mr. McCarthy discovered the photographs taken at the 1949 exhibition. "When I saw the object on the bottom shelf of the cabinet, I knew in an instant that it had to be it. The detective work was an intellectual exercise, but the effect was physical spine-tingling rush of adrenalin, all concentrated on that square centimetre of print." The grainy images, which have been scanned and magnified, are the only known visual record of the missing Nécessaire Egg.
 the "Royal Danish Jubilee"
Missing 1902 Alexander III Commemorative Egg

Treasure of Gourdon

The Treasure of Gourdon (Trésor de Gourdon), unearthed near Gourdon, Saône-et-Loire, in 1845, is a hoard of gold, the objects dating to the end of the fifth or beginning of the sixth century, which was secreted soon after 524. When it was found, the hoard comprised a chalice and a rectangular paten, that were similarly applied with garnets and turquoises in cloisonné compartments, together with about a hundred gold coins dating from the reigns of Byzantine emperors Leo I (457–474) through that of Justin I (518–527). The Merovingian king Clovis I converted to Christianity in 496; the chalice and paten might be called early Merovingian or late Gallo-Roman.

 In the sixth century, Gourdon was the site of a monastery, whence these objects may have come.

The paten from Gourdon
The treasure may have been hastily buried in anticipation of a raid. Its recovery was fortuitous: a shepherd girl, Louise Forest, discovered it below a Roman tile engraved with a cross. The treasure was sold at auction in Paris, 20 July 1846, when the paten and chalice were acquired by the State, whereas the documentary coins were dispersed and lost to view.


Gold chalice, with garnet and turquoise, from the Treasure of Gourdon Cabinet des Médailles, Paris


The treasure is preserved in the Cabinet des Médailles, Paris, a department of the Bibliothèque nationale.




The Sroda Treasure




The Środa Treasure is one of the most valuable archaeological finds of the 20th century. It was found in 1985 during renovation works in Środa Śląska, Poland. It is now agreed that the treasure belonged to the King (later Emperor) Charles IV of the House of Luxembourg. Around 1348, needing funds to support his claim to the King of the Romans, Charles pawned various items to the Jewish banker Muscho (Moshe, Mojżesz) in Środa. Soon afterwards, the black plague visited Środa. Muscho was not heard of again and it is believed that he either fled from the plague-struck town, died of plague, or perhaps fell victim to pogroms as Jews were blamed for spreading the plague. What is certain is that no one ever reclaimed the treasure, which was left hidden somewhere in the town for hundreds of years.

   
Blanche of Valois, first wife of the emperor Charles IV

Among the artifacts was a bejeweled golden crown thought to belong to Blanche of Valois, wife of Emperor Charles IV. The crown is topped by 7 eagles and buckled by 6 bodkins with fleurons a circular fibula with cameo.

A handful of pendants, rings, and a gold broach were also discovered amidst over 3,000 coins. Unfortunately, a large portion of the Svoda treasure was plundered by locals before authorities could secure it, and only a portion of the discovery was recovered. That which remains is now housed in Sroda’s Regional Museum.

Gold and silver coins were discovered during demolition of an old building. Much of the treasure is thought to have been lost to looting.

The hoard dates from the mid 14th century. Its largest component is silver coins, of which there are about 3,000 pieces The Sroda treasure takes the number one place on this list. It was uncovered in 1985 during renovations in that region of Poland.

Most of the more than 4,000 pieces in the treasure are coins, but they also include the crown, brooch and pendant. Crowns are rare and distinctive items, and it was this crown that allowed historians to pin down the treasure's origins.

The crown probably belonged to Charles' first wife, Blanche of Valois; the crow and some of the other pieces have wedding motifs, so they may have parts of her trousseau.

The golden crown with eagles-exceptional one, of no analogies with other medieval crowns - is the latest of alll jewels found in Sroda Slaska. It belongs to the group of short segmental crowns with fleurons formed in the 13th century. Trapezoid lower segments made of double tin plates (hachured and ornamental with open - work front side - opus interrasile) are topped by eagles with rings in their beaks and joined bodkins with fleurons. The crown was originally decorated by 193 precious stones: garnets, spinels, sapphires, emeralds, aquamarines, pearls and plaquette of cellular and fluted enamel in gold (so called de plique). The structure of segments decoration is based on alternation rule. This goldsmith masterpiece was probably made in Paris centre in the beginning of the 14th century, what can be proved by the analogies with French goldsmith. One can also take into account Prague court, where French and Italian goldsmiths worked. The crown was surely a female ceremonial jewel, probably made because of the wedding. The jewels made in the 1st. half of the 14th century are a ring with a sapphire and a band for decorating covers of reliquaries, books and jewel-cases (Prague).

The pendants decorated on both sides are the oldest in the whole set. They are decorated on obverse and reverse sides with filigree, set with garnets, sapphires and pearls. Semi-lunar laps with engraved decoration and use of enamel were added later on obverse sides. There are pressed laps in the form of stylized palmette surrounded by 3 lions on reverse sides. Large dimension (63x66 mm) and weigh (41-42 g) of the jewels prove their use as pendants for female head dresses (coifs, head - bands etc).

The second pair of pendants (ear-rings?) smaller (60,5x62,5 mm) and decorated only on one side, has the form similar to the one described above. On the obverse side, set with Chech garnets, the filigree in the form of scrolls is less precise that on the bigger pendants.

 This kind of circular pendants were often used on the territory of Bizantium and on the territories under the influence of Bizantium art. Goldsmith's analogies can point the Sicily as the place where the pendants were made, most probably in the 12th century.



The bracelet with nodules almost identical with pendant's ending and with a figure of a bird (eagle, falcon?) on the buckle probably comes from the same atelier. Both items - smaller pendants and bracelet (?) - were probably made in Hungary in the 2. half of the 13th century.



One of the most interesting parts of the treasure is the circular (diameter 129.3 mm) fibula with cameo cut in blue chalcedony, set with garnets, emeralds sapphires and pearls (22 precious stones are missing). Fibulas were used to brace ceremonial court coats or liturgical mantles on breast or arms. They had various forms (but the circular ones were most frequent) and were richly set with precious stones. The fibula of Sroda Slaska is the biggest one among all known fibulas of the hooped kind. It was probably made in Italy, in the goldsmith's circle of Stauf's court, in the 2, half of the 13th centuary. Its central element - cameo with the image of an eagle in aquila vitrix kind - was probably made in Sicilian goldsmith's atelier about 1240.



It is probable that the coins were also hidden with the jewels (the 2. half of the 13th c. and the 1. half of the 14th c.).

Florin from Środa treasure.

One of many mysteries connected with the jewels and coins found in Sroda Slaska is the basic question: who does the treasure belong to? and when was it hidden? Many data proves that the jewels could come from the Chech treasure from the times of Luxembourg dynasty and they constituted the security for money loan raised by Carl IV (1346 - 1378) from Jews of Sroda. The Wroclaw duchy, where Sroda Slaska was situated, was taken over by John of Luxembourg in virtue of a law of succesion in 1335. Sroda, trade centre of big importance, was specially connected with Prague court by person of John from Sroda, secretary, and later chancellor of Carl IV. Royal deposid was probably hidden during persecution of Jews in the period of pest called black death, which came to Silesia in the middle of the 14th century.



Thracian Gold: Panagyurishte Gold Rhytas

The golden treasure from Panagyurishte was found in 1949 two kilometers to the south of Panagyurishte. It is dated back to the end of the 4th and the beginning of the 3rd century BC . The treasure consists of an extremely beautiful set of Rhytas with rich decorations and ornaments. It was used in feasts or in libations and rituals related to the Thracian mythology. It consists of 9 vessels made of pure gold, weighing over 6 kg (13.2 lb).

Four of the rhyta are shaped as animals’ heads or torsos – ram, goat, and two of them have fallow deer heads.

The upper part of the rhyta is decorated with scenes and heroes from the Greek mythology.

Rams Head




Goat Torso




The Rhyton is with antler”s head and very elaborately modeled big horns.The handle end is with the body of a lion whose forepaws rest on the mouth rim.The decoration on his neck illustrates the popular story from the Greek mythology about the Judgement of Paris,also known by the name Alexander, which caused the burst of the Trojan War.

The importance of the event is emphasized by using the typical for the Thracian art solar disc on the animals forehead.The hero was supposed to choose among three goddesses: Athena ,Hera and Aphrodite,in order to ward the most beautiful one with the golden apple, Paris chose the goddess of love and beauty who gave him as reward Helen of Troy to be his wife. This kindled not only the war but also the wrath of the two neglected goddesses. With the exception of the awarded Aphrodite, all the figures are seated. Their clothing is depicted in great detail,with all natural curves, jewellery and typical for everyone attributes. Even though easily recognizable,there is a dotted inscription about their names.The handle ends in the lower part in the shape of beautiful woman”s head.


On one of the rhyta are depicted god Dionysus with Ariadne (a Cretan princess) on the feast on the occasion of their wedding. Three of the vessels are jugs with Amazon heads. Their handles are formed as mythological creatures with animal figures and human heads.


Thracian Gold: Panagyurishte Treasure




The Panagyurishte Treasure is a Thracian treasure excavated on December 8, 1949 by three brothers, Pavel, Petko and Michail Deikov who worked together at the region of “Merul” tile factory near the town of Panagyurishte, Bulgaria.

It consists of a phiale, an amphora and seven rhytons with total weight of 6.164 kg of 24-karat gold. All of the objects are richly and skilfully decorated with scenes of Thracian myths, customs and life. It is dated from the 4th-3rd centuries BC, and is thought to have been used as a royal ceremonial set by the Thracian king Seuthes III.

The items may have been buried to hide them during 4th century BC invasions of the area by the Celts or Macedonians. The phiale carries inscriptions giving its weight in Greek drachmae and Persian darics.


Golden phiale (4th–3rd century BC)


A skilfully made shallow bowl, called phiale has four concentric circles on it, with 24 relief ornaments in each circle, which become smaller from the rim to the centre of the phiale. The biggest and the next two circles are arranged with Negro heads, and the last, most internal, circle consists of a row of acorns. Between the rows of elements the phiale is decorated with floral ornaments.

A rhyton (plural rhytons or, following the Greek plural, rhyta) is a container from which fluids were intended to be drunk or to be poured in some ceremony such as libation.


 
The Thracians were ruled by a warrior aristocracy that had access to plentiful gold deposits at the mouth of the Danube River, which contained one of the largest ancient supplies of the metal. They enjoyed a vibrant trade with their neighbors, including the Scythians to the north, and the Greeks to the south—a fact reflected in Thracian art.

"The styles that have been found in Thracian art and Thracian gold represent a mix of Scythian, Greek, and Macedonian cultures, and of course Thracian culture itself."


Golden amphora, part of the Panagyuriste treasure, 4th to 3rd century BC.
Most interesting regarding its form and decoration is the big amphora above. Its handles are formed as fighting centaurs, and the two openings for pouring the wine, located at the bottom end of the vessel, represent Negro heads. Between the Negro heads is the figure of the child Heracles, fighting the snake. The amphora is richly decorated with realistic scenes from the Greek mythology.


Amphora-detail. The Panagyurishte Golden Treasure



The Thracians either had skillful craftsmen themselves, or access to Greek craftsmen. They made beautifully ornate golden and silver objects such as various kinds of vessels, rhytons, facial masks, pectorals, jewelry, weapons, etc. These show strong, and increasing, influence from the neighboring cultures, especially the Greeks. They used to bury rich hoards of precious objects both to hide them in times of enemy invasions and unrest as well as for ritual purposes. To date, more than 80 Thracian treasures have been excavated or, more often than not, accidentally found in Bulgaria.




Gold Diadems From The Royal Tombs of King Philip II at Vergina


A fresco painting of a hunt tops the facade of a tomb believed to belong to the ancient Greek King Philip II of Macedon
 
Three Macedonian tombs were discovered: the intact tomb of Philip II (II) with a hunting scene fresco painting. Intact is also the so-called Tomb of the Prince (III), which may belong to Alexander IV, grandson of Philip II and his son Alexander the Great and another ruined and plundered Macedonian tomb (IV) of the third BC century  known as the “Tomb of Persephone”, with the incomparable fresco of the abduction of Persephone by Hades and a ruined building named "Heroon", probably used for the worship of the dead royal members buried next door.

Some of the major finds were the two golden urns, containing the bones of Philip II and one of his wives, two oak and one myrtle golden wreaths worn by the royal dead. Also the rare gold-and-purple embroidered cloth, which wrapped the bones of the royal wife, along with her golden diadem of a unique art, two ivory symposium beds, weapons and armor of Philip II, valuable symposium utensils of the royal family and the silver urn of "Prince."


Golden funerary crown of Philip II of Macedon (382-336BC) father of Alexander the Great. Found in his tomb at Vergina
Golden myrtle wreath of Queen Meda found in the tomb of Philip II of Macedon
Another magnificent piece , a crown found in the Macedonian Tomb of Vergina, exhibited in the Archaeological Museum of Thessaloniki

A diadem from 4th century BC discovered in one of the Macedonian royal tombs in Vergina

Gilt silver diadem from the tomb of Philip II of Macedon, Vergina, c. 340–300 BCE.